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Control of Pig Reproduction VII

bp0017editorial | (1) | CPR2005

Editorial: Control of Pig Reproduction

Cheryl J Ashworth

Almost 40 years ago, in 1981, the University of Nottingham Faculty of Agricultural Science hosted their 34th Easter School, which in that year was on the topic of control of pig reproduction. The proceedings of that meeting were published as Control of Pig Reproduction by Butterworths, London in 1982. The success of the conference, coupled with the favourable reviews of the published proceedings, highlighted the value of an international conference which brought together exper...

bp0017cpr1 | (1) | CPR2005

Distribution and gene expression of neuropeptides during brain development

Sienkiewicz W.

Neuropeptides and catecholamines are biologically active substances which play the roles of neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and cotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS). These substances are known to regulate and influence a wide spectrum of functions; such as food and water intake, thermoregulation, growth and maturation, sexual behaviour, reproduction, function of the hypothalamic-hypophysial-organ axes, and many others. This large family of neuropeptides ...

bp0017cpr2 | (1) | CPR2005

Foetal and neonatal development of luteinising hormone and its regulatory systems in the pig

Parviz N.

This review is a short summary of the "state-of-the-art" regarding the ontogeny of LH and part of its control system in the pig. The maturity of pituitary gonadotropin cells and the vascular drainage between the hypothalamus and pituitary are probably the most important steps in the developmental process of gonadotropin (LH) secretion. In the pig, these are achieved at around day 80 of foetal age, when LH cell density is comparable to that observed in adults. The hypotha...

bp0017cpr3 | (1) | CPR2005

Gene expression in the brain-pituitary adipose tissue axis and luteinising hormone secretion during pubertal development in the gilt

Barb C. R. , Hausman G. J. , Rekaya R.

The occurrence of puberty in the female is due to the interplay of central and peripheral mechanisms in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis regulates growth and gonadal function, as well as adipocyte hormone secretion. Hypothalamic GnRH mRNA expression increased at 3.5 months of age and declined by 6 months of age. Concomitant with the age related reduction in the oestrogen negative feedback on LH secretion was a decline in hypothalamic oestrogen receptor-&alph...

bp0017cpr4 | (1) | CPR2005

Transsynaptic connections between the hypothalamus and adipose tissue: relationship to reproduction

Czaja K.

Neurophysiological mechanisms that control energy balance are reciprocally linked to those that control reproduction. Neuromorphological studies using retrograde tracing methods revealed that nerve cells within the central (CNS) and autonomic (ANS) nervous systems in different species, including the pig, are transsynaptically connected to different fat tissue depots. In the pig, neurons localised in the paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus and arcuate nucleus were...

bp0017cpr5 | (1) | CPR2005

Androgens in female pig reproduction: actions mediated by the androgen receptor

Pope W.F. , Cardenas H.

Androgens have potential actions in almost all the organs of males and females. In females, most organs contain some tissues with cells that have androgen receptors. Androgens can regulate cellular functions by binding to androgen receptors or be converted to other hormones. For example, testosterone can bind to the androgen receptor or be aromatised to oestradiol. Treating animals with testosterone, therefore, might elicit some androgenic and oestrogenic effects. Altern...

bp0017cpr6 | (1) | CPR2005

The role of intra-luteal factors in the control of the porcine corpus luteum

Gadsby J. , Rose L. , Sriperumbudur R. , Ge Z.

In this paper we review three intra-luteal factors and their roles in the corpus luteum (CL). Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, together with its receptor and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), represent an important control system in the CL. IGF-I is a product of small luteal cells and has steroidogenic (i.e. luteotrophic) actions on large luteal cells via the type I receptor, while IGFBPs (e.g. BP-2 and 3; small cells) generally inhibit IGF-Is actions. IGF-I is particula...

bp0017cpr7 | (1) | CPR2005

The growth hormone/prolactin gene family in ruminant placentae

Raeside J. I. , Christie H. L. , Renaud R. L. , Sinclair P. A.

A review of the remarkable production of steroids by the testes of the boar is presented, with the principal aims of highlighting the achievements of the Leydig cells and, at the same time, pointing to the considerable deficiencies in our understanding of its biological relevance. The onset of gonadal steroidogenesis at an early stage of sex differentiation and the pattern of pre- and postnatal secretion of steroids are outlined. This is followed by a list of steroids id...

bp0017cpr8 | (1) | CPR2005

Genetic variation in sperm production

Ford J.J. , McCoard S.A. , Wise T.H. , Lunstrau T.H. , Rohrer G.A.

In boars, the primary determinant of daily sperm production is the number of Sertoli cells, which establishes testicular weight. The only breed comparison of foetal testicular development in boars contrasted two diverse breeds, White composite (WC, Landrace-Yorkshire) with Meishan, a Chinese breed that undergoes pubertal development at a young age and has small testicular size. During the prenatal period, the pattern of change in testicular development is similar in thes...

bp0017cpr9 | (1) | CPR2005

Uterine development and endometrial programming

Bartol F.F , Wiley A.A. , Bagnell C.A.

Structural patterning and functional programming of uterine tissues are mechanistically coupled. These processes ensure anteroposterior differentiation of uterine tissues from adjacent segments of the developing female reproductive tract (FRT) and radial patterning that establishes uterine-specific histoarchitecture and functionality. Uterine organogenesis begins prenatally and is completed postnatally. Genes required for FRT development include Pax2, Lim 1<...

bp0017cpr10 | (1) | CPR2005

Maternal recognition of pregnancy signal or endocrine disruptor: The two faces of oestrogen during establishment of pregnancy in the pig

Geisert R.D. , Ross J.W. , Ashworth J.W. , White F.J. , Johnson G.A. , DeSilva U.

Timing of conceptus growth and attachment to the uterine luminal epithelium is regulated by progesterone secretion from the corpus luteum and by expression of progesterone receptor in the uterine epithelia and stroma. Conceptus growth and uterine attachment are temporally associated with the disappearance of progesterone receptors from uterine epithelia. While the loss of progesterone receptor from the endometrial epithelia on day 10 of the oestrous cycle and pregnancy h...

bp0017cpr11 | (1) | CPR2005

Inhibition of luteolysis and embryo-uterine interactions during the peri-implantation period in pigs

Ziecik A.J. , Blitek A. , Kaczmarek M.M. , Waclawik A. , Bogacki M.

Inhibition of luteolysis and establishment of pregnancy in pigs results from oestrogen secretion by the conceptuses and requires progesterone produced by the corpus luteum (CL). An integral part of maternal recognition of pregnancy in the pig is the redirection of prostaglandin (PG) F2α,secretion from endocrine (blood) to exocrine (uterus) direction and an increase of PGE2 synthesis in both the endometrium and conceptus. Uterine and conceptus ...

bp0017cpr12 | (1) | CPR2005

The use of microarrays to define functionally-related genes that are differentially expressed in the cycling pig uterus

Green J.A. , Kim J.G. , Whitworth J.G. , Agca C. , Prather R.S.

In swine and other livestock, the uterine endometrium exhibits dramatic morphological and secretory changes throughout the oestrous cycle and during pregnancy. Such physiological changes are a reflection of extremely complex interactions between gene products (RNA and protein). The recent development of genomics and proteomics methods, as well as associated bioinformatics tools, has provided the means to begin characterising such interactions. Indeed, the analysis of the...

bp0017cpr13 | (1) | CPR2005

Dietary fat and reproduction in the post partum sow

van den Brand H. , Kemp B.

Lactating sows are not able to ingest sufficient energy to produce the large amount of milk they are presently capable of. Therefore, sows use a considerable amount of body reserves to maintain their milk production. Body weight loss is negatively associated with subsequent reproductive performance. Addition of fat to the diet is often used to increase energy intake during lactation. This review examines the effects of adding fat to the diet on subsequent reproductive pe...

bp0017cpr14 | (1) | CPR2005

Stress, cortisol and reproduction in female pigs

Turner A.I. , Tilbrook A.J.

Two key hypotheses emerge in the literature regarding the impact of stress on reproduction in females of any species. First, prolonged stress impairs reproduction in females. Secondly, acute stress impairs reproduction, if it occurs at a critical time during the precisely timed series of endocrine events that induce oestrus and ovulation. We reviewed studies conducted in female pigs to find support or opposition for these hypotheses in female pigs. We also considered the...

bp0017cpr15 | (1) | CPR2005

Seasonality of reproduction in gilts and sows

Peltoniemi O.A.T. , Virolainen J.V.

In the wild, the pig adapts her reproductive functions according to the seasonal changes in the environment, such as the ambient temperature and availability of food. Like in other short day seasonal breeders, breeding season is favoured in the mid winter in order to provide the offspring with the best chances to survive four months later Seasonal changes in environment are perceived mainly by the ability of the pig to recognise seasonal changes in photoperiod. This info...

bp0017cpr16 | (1) | CPR2005

Effects of boar stimuli on the follicular phase and on oestrous behaviour in sows

Langendijk P. , Soede N.M. , Kemp B.

This review describes the role of boar stimuli in receptive behaviour, and the influence of boar stimuli during the follicular phase. Receptive behaviour (standing response) in an oestrous sow is elicited by boar stimuli, which can be olfactory, auditory, tactile, or visual. The relative importance of these stimuli is not clear. Individually, olfactory and tactile stimuli elicit a standing response in a variable percentage of sows, depending on the study, but not in all ...

bp0017cpr17 | (1) | CPR2005

Influence of semen on inflammatory modulators of embryo implantation

Robertson S.A. , O'Leary S. , Armstrong D.T.

Insemination transmits to the female reproductive tract constituents of seminal plasma that target uterine epithelial cells to activate a cascade of inflammatory and immunological changes. Experiments in rodents show seminal factor signalling acts to 'condition' the female immune response to tolerate the conceptus, and to organise molecular and cellular changes in the endometrium to facilitate embryo development and implantation. The active factors in seminal plasma are ...

bp0017cpr18 | (1) | CPR2005

Harnessing the biology of the oviduct for the benefit of artificial insemination

Holt W.V. , Elliott R.M.A. , Fazeli A. , Sostaric E. , Georgiou A.S. , Satake N. , Prathalingam N. , Watson P.F.

Spermatozoa fulfil a single role, namely achieving syngamy by transporting the haploid genome to their counterpart gamete, the oocyte. Simple as this may seem, it is fraught with many difficulties, especially in the face of biological processes that enable females to select spermatozoa after they have mated multiply with several males. Conversely, the female reproductive tract sequesters a privileged sperm subpopulation in the oviductal isthmus for variable periods of ti...

bp0017cpr19 | (1) | CPR2005

Strategies to improve the fertility of frozen-thawed boar semen for artificial insemination

Roca J. , Rodriguez-Martinez H. , Vazquez J.M. , Bolarin A. , Hernandez M. , Saravia F. , Wallgren M. , Martinez E.A.

Although cryopreservation of boar semen for artificial insemination (Al) was developed 35 years ago, cryopreservation conditions and Al strategies are still considered sub-optimal. Al with excessive numbers of frozenthawed sperm (5-6 x 109 cells), still does not achieve fertility levels similar to Al using liquid semen because of reduced sperm survival. Frozenthawed (FT) spermatozoa have therefore not been the preferred option for commercial breeding programme...

bp0017cpr20 | (1) | CPR2005

Cryopreservation and transfer of pig embryos

Cameron R.D.A. , Beebe L.F.S. , Blackshaw L.F.S.

Recent advances in cryopreservation and non-surgical transfer of pig embryos have made embryo transfer in pigs a commercially viable technology especially for the international transfer of valuable genetic material. Early research demonstrated that early stage pig embryos were highly sensitive to temperatures below 15°C and this sensitivity decreased with development to peri-hatching blastocysts which is accompanied by a reduction in lipid content. Removal of the lip...

bp0017cpr21 | (1) | CPR2005

Deciphering the pig genome to understand gamete production

Rohrer G.A. , Wise T.H. , Ford J.J.

The field of livestock genomics has made considerable advances in the past decade. In the area of pig reproduction, a number of genome scans have identified several genomic regions associated with variation in reproductive measures ranging from ovulation rate, litter size and testis size. Additionally, several candidate genes have been associated with variation in litter size. These studies primarily focused on developing genetic markers to facilitate selection decisions...

bp0017cpr22 | (1) | CPR2005

Factors influencing the commercialisation of cloning in the pork industry S.L.

Pratt S.L. , Sherrer E.S. , Reeves D.E. , Stice S.L.

Production of cloned pigs using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a repeatable and predictable procedure and multiple labs around the world have generated cloned pigs and genetically modified cloned pigs. Due to the integrated nature of the pork production industry, pork producers are the most likely to benefit and are in the best position to introduce cloning in to production systems. Cloning can be used to amplify superior genetics or be used in conjunction with ...

bp0017cpr23 | (1) | CPR2005

Structural, biochemical and functional aspects of sperm-oocyte interactions in pigs

Rath D. , Topfer-Petersen E. , Michelmann H. W. , Schwartz P. , von Witzendorff D. , Ebeling S. , Ekhlasi-Hundrieser M. , Piehler E. , Petrunkina A. , Romar R.

Polyspermic fertilization is still a major issue in porcine IVF systems. New information is available to characterize the zona pellucida (ZP) at different developmental stages by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by confocal microscopy to show the distribution of ZP glycoproteins. SEM images indicated no differences between in vivo and in vitro matured oocytes; however a change in the surface structure between immature and matured oocytes, as well as between mature ...

bp0017cpr24 | (1) | CPR2005

Germ cell transplantation in pigs - advances and applications

Dobrinski I.

Transplantation of germ cells from fertile donor mice to the testes of infertile recipient mice results in donor-derived spermatogenesis and transmission of the donor haplotype to offspring of recipient animals. In the pig, germ cells can be transplanted to a recipient testis by ultrasoundguided cannulation of the rete testis with delivery of cells by gravity flow. It is important to note that germ cell transplantation was successful between unrelated, immuno-competent p...